Some of these methods are time-consuming, and some are expensive. Although there
are powerful methods to prove honey adulteration, they have to be further improved
in order to ensure honey quality.
Due to the limitations of classical analytical methods, which measure chemical parameters to detect adulteration, many experiments have been carried out using new indicators derived from physical analysis, such as thermal analysis.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis method with a broad
field of application. It is an efficient method for characterizing pure food compounds
as well as their mixtures. DSC analysis is fairly rapid and simple, requires a small
“Adulteration of pure honey with synthetic
honey (based on C4 plant sugars) has become much
more prevalent in recent years.”
RAPID 3-D TM
AUGUST ; SEPTEMBER 2009
amount of sample (< 100 mg) and does not use solvents. It has been used in monitoring thermal behavior in different foods, as well as in cases where no heat exchange occurs. DSC can monitor and determine heat flows resulting from various structural
modifications (phase transformations and transitions, glass transition, etc.) or decomposition of food compounds, during temperature-programmed scans. These phenomena allow the determination of the type of transformation occurring in the studied
food product (e.g., granulation in honey) as well as its thermodynamic and kinetic
properties. DSC can be a useful technique to complement chemical analytical methods which show the limitations of the physicochemical determinations (i.e., pH, acidity, water activity and conductivity).
DSC has been investigated for the detection of alteration or adulteration, and for
quality control of food. This technique was used to determine thermal behavior, energy variation during phase transition (crystallization or/and fusion), transition temperatures (such as glass transition temperature) and water content relationship in
honey. Proper understanding of honey’s thermal properties is essential for defining
honey quality and detecting its alteration or adulteration.
Honey is a viscous, heterogeneous material, which consists mostly of sugars (
present in an amorphous, devitrified state) and water (> 95%) and demonstrates certain
thermal behavior during heat exchange. The thermal behavior of honey is influenced
by several factors, including composition, temperature and amount and size of crystals. Knowledge of honey’s thermal behavior is critical during processing, handling
and storage. Addition of syrups produces commercial honey of lower quality. When
sugar syrups are added to authentic honeys, adulteration can be determined easily,
since the syrups and honeys show significant differences in thermal phenomena, as
well as in their amplitudes and positions on the temperature scale.
demonstrate several thermal or
phenomena), such as
the glass transition
along with their re- Figure 1: Typical Features on a DSC Scan
Tools for ‘on-site’
Test results in < 10 mins
Kits also available for: Egg,
Almond, Casein, Gluten,
Peanut, Hazelnut, Shellfish
For further information:
call: (888) 329 0255