Funding for this project was provided by
the WSU Western Center for Risk Management Education and the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.
Team members Andy Bary, Craig Cog-ger and Richard Dougherty, along with the
contributions of Claudia Coles, B. Susie
Craig, David Gifford, Joe Harrison, Carol
Miles and Marcy Ostrom, are greatly
1. Ayers, T.L. 2006. Outbreaks of E. coli O157
infections associated with lettuce and other
leafy greens. Presented at E. coli O157:H7 in
lettuce and leafy greens: Strategies for developing an intervention assessment model.
2. Beuchat, L.R. and J.H. Ryu. 1997. Produce
handling and processing practices. Emer Infect
Dis 3( 4):459–465.
3. Beuchat, L.R. 1999. Survival of enterohemor-rhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces
applied to lettuce and the effectiveness of chlorinated waters as a disinfectant. J Food Prot
6. Islam, M., J. Morgan, M.P. Doyle, S.C. Phatak, P. Millner and X. Jiang. 2004. Fate of Salmonella
enterica serovar Typhimurium on carrots and radishes grown in fields treated with contaminated
composts or irrigation water. App Env Micro 70:2497–2502.
7. Islam, M., J. Morgan, M.P. Doyle, S.C. Phatak, P. Millner and X. Jiang. 2004. Persistence of
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on lettuce and parsley and in soils on which they were
grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. Foodborne Path
Dis 1: 27–35.
8. www.agrisk.umn.edu/verification/vrregister.dll/ publicresults?ProjectNumber=RME-D8H02605.
9. Rangel, J.M., P.H. Sparling, C. Crowe, P.M. Griffin and D.L. Swerdlow. 2002. Epidemiology of
Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerg Infect Dis 11:603–609.
10. producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/2011% 20PSA%20Proceedings.pdf.
11. Sivapalasingam, S., C.R. Friedman, L. Cohen and R.V. Tauxe. 2004. Fresh produce: A growing
cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. J Food Prot
Karen Killinger, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at Washington State University (WSU) in
the School of Food Science, Pullman WA. Her extension and research program spans
the farm-to-table continuum. At the farm level, her program examines the prevalence of
foodborne pathogens in agricultural environments and the WSU GAPs team provides
GAPs educational programs. Dr. Killinger’s program also performs validation studies for
packing and processing interventions. Consumer educational programs focus on promoting the use of meat thermometers. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.