Safety Enhancement Program Manual
2014-07-01. Prior to the publication of
this act, HACCP systems in Canada
were similar to those in the U.S., and
Canadian HACCP systems were early
adopters of the use of PRPs as control
measures in the first edition of the Canadian Food Safety Enhancement Program
Using Decision Trees to Determine
the Type of Preventive Control
An Internet search for “HACCP
decision trees” will result in a hundred
types of decision trees, but all of them
have common elements, and many
relate back to the decision tree listed by
9 This is often re-
ferred to simply as the Codex Decision
Tree (Figure 1). To use this decision tree
to decide whether a particular preven-
tive control measure should be a CCP
at a process step, there are certain pieces
of information needed: the process
steps where control measures may be
applied, the potential control measures,
the effectiveness of the control measures
and the contamination potential of the
product after control steps have been
applied. The output from this tree is
either that the pro-
cess step is a CCP
or the process step
is not a CCP. If the
process step is not
a CCP, then the
assumption is made
that the process
step does not need to be a preventive
measure at all, or that it may need to
become a PRP or SSOP. Figure 2 is a
similar decision tree suggested in the
Seafood HACCP guidance,
10 with fewer
questions but similar outputs. Figure 3
is another modified decision tree from
Campden BRI11 that starts with the
question about whether the identified
hazard is managed by PRPs and stops
the process immediately if the answer
?Do control preventive measure(s) exist?
Modify step, process or product
Is control at this step necessary for safety?
Is this step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce
the likely occurrence of a hazard to an acceptable level?**
NO Not a CCP Stop*
Could contamination with identified hazard(s) occur in excess of
acceptable level(s) or could these increase to unacceptable levels?**
NO Not a CCP Stop* YES
Will a subsequent step eliminate identified hazard(s)
or reduce likely occurrence to an acceptable level?
NO YES Not a CCP Stop*
Does this step involve a hazard of sufficient likelihood of occurrence and severity to
warrant its control?
YES NO Not a CCP
Is control at this step
necessary for safety?
NO Not a CCP
Modify the step,
product or process.
Is control at this step necessary to prevent, eliminate or reduce the risk of the
hazard to consumers?
YES NO Not a CCP
This is a CCP
Is the hazard managed by the prerequisite programs? 1. YES
Are control measures in place for the hazard?
Is control at this step
necessary for food safety?
Not a CCP
(Record the PRP)
NO Modify step, process
or product or add
NO Not a CCP (Stop)
Is this process step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce the hazard
to an acceptable level?
Could contamination with the hazard occur at unacceptable level(s) or
increase to unacceptable level(s)?
NO Not a CCP (Stop) YES
Will a subsequent process step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an
Not a CCP (Stop)
Figure 1. Codex Decision Tree
Figure 2. Decision Tree Suggested in the Seafood HACCP Guidance
1. Based on the likelihood of occurrence and the severity
of adverse health effects, does this hazard require
YES (Hazard requiring preventive control)
2. Will subsequent steps alone/in combination (including
expected use by consumer) guarantee the removal of
this significant hazard?
3. Are control measures or practices in place at this step
and do they exclude, reduce or maintain this significant
hazard as necessary?
4. Is it necessary to establish the critical limits for the
control measure at this step?
It is necessary to monitor the control measure in such a
way that action can be taken immediately when there is
a loss of control.
scientific data &
Modify the process and go to Step 1
CCP: Critical Control Point
PP: Prerequisite Program
oPP: Operational Prerequisite Program
Figure 3. Modified Decision Tree from Campden BRI11
Figure 4. Modified Tree That Allows for OPRPs in the Decision-Making Process